Is Hip Arthroscopic Surgery Necessary for FAI?

    Surgeons from McMaster University are evaluating the procedure versus other treatment options for young adults with hip pain from femoroacetabular impingement.

    Minimal access hip arthroscopy surgery has become the treatment of choice for hip pain in young adults, especially athletes, but a team of McMaster University surgeons is looking to see if the procedure is worthwhile.

    To evaluate the surgery, the team is examining how patients do after having hip arthroscopy operations and comparing those results with results of patients undergoing a simpler accepted treatment.

    In North America, arthroscopic hip surgeries have replaced open surgeries as the go-to procedure for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a common source of hip pain in young adults. The number of such procedures increased 18-fold in the U.S. within a decade, especially with athletes.

    The problem, illustrated by surgeon Mohit Bhandari, MD, PhD, FRCSC, in a paper published in the scientific journal Nature Reviews Rheumatology, is that although there are a number of new studies assessing FAI surgery and its outcomes, many are hampered by small sample sizes and other major limitations.

    “The evidence to date is by no means conclusive. Whether hip arthroscopy works, and for whom it works, remains a highly debated issue in our field,” said Dr. Bhandari, professor of orthopedics for McMaster’s Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine.

    First author of the review, Moin Khan, MD, FRCSC, added: “Newly graduating sports medicine focused surgeons want to use the latest evidence-based approaches to differentiate themselves. Good data are needed to help them decide what procedures work, and which ones don’t.” Dr. Khan is a fellow of orthopedic surgery at McMaster’s medical school.

    Dr. Bhandari and Femi Ayeni, MD, FRCSC, a McMaster associate professor of orthopaedic surgery, are co-principal investigators for a clinical trial to measure results of such surgery.

    “The trial will carefully test the effect of major hip arthroscopic surgery against a simpler procedure for hip arthroscopy and determine, once and for all, whether the exponential rise in hip scope procedures has a scientific basis and true benefit to patients,” Dr. Bhandari said.

    “Similar research with patients’ knee operations has shown that there have been no additional benefits between arthroscopic knee surgeries and other simpler procedures. Patients with knee issues who had the simpler procedure showed considerable relief of their symptoms.”

    The clinical trial – Femoroacetabular Impingement Randomized Controlled Trial (FIRST) – is currently underway and enrolment of participants will be completed in the next year. The research is funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.